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      文章網 » 散文集 » 朱自清 » 歌謠里的重疊

      歌謠里的重疊

      歌謠以重疊為生命,腳韻只是重疊的一種方式。從史的發展上看,歌謠原只要重疊,這重疊并不一定是腳韻;那就是說,歌謠并不一定要用韻。韻大概是后起的,是重疊的簡化。現在的歌謠有又用韻又用別種重疊的,更可見出重疊的重要來。重疊為了強調,也為了記憶。顧頡剛先生說過:

      對山歌因問作答,非復沓不可。……兒歌注重于說話的練習,事物的記憶與滑稽的趣味,所以也有復沓的需要。(《論〈詩經〉所錄全為樂歌》上)

      “復沓”就是重疊。說“對山歌因問作答,非復沓不可”,是說重疊由于合唱;當然,合唱不止于對山歌。這可說是為了強調。說“兒歌注重于說話的練習,事物的記憶,……也有復沓的需要”,是為了記憶;但是這也不限于兒歌。至于滑稽的趣味,似乎與重疊無關,繞口令或拗口令里的滑稽的趣味,是從詞語的意義和聲音來的,不是從重疊來的。

      現在舉幾首近代的歌謠為例,意在欣賞,但是同時也在表示重疊的作用。美國何德蘭的《孺子歌圖》(收錄的以北平兒歌為主)里有一首《足五趾歌》:

      這個小牛兒吃草。

      這個小牛兒吃料。

      這個小牛兒喝水兒。

      這個小牛兒打滾兒。

      這個小牛兒竟臥著,

      我們打他。

      這是一首游戲歌,一面念,一面用手指點著,末了兒還打一下。這首歌的完整全靠重疊,沒有韻。將五個足趾當作五個“小牛兒”,末一個不做事,懶臥著,所以打他。這是變化。同書另一首歌:

      玲瓏塔,

      塔玲瓏,

      玲瓏寶塔十三層。

      這首歌主要的是“玲瓏”一個詞。前兩行是顛倒的重疊,后一行還是重疊前兩行,但是顛倒了“玲瓏”這個詞,又加上了“寶”和“十三層”兩個詞語,將句子伸長,其實還只是“玲瓏”的意思。這些都是變化。這首歌據說現在還在游藝場里唱著,可是編得很長很復雜了。

      邱峻先生輯的《情歌唱答》里有兩首對山歌,是客家話:

      女唱:一日唔見涯心肝,

      唔見心肝心不安。

      唔見心肝心肝脫,

      一見心肝脫心肝。

      男答:閑來么事想心肝,

      緊想心肝緊不安。

      我想心肝心肝想,

      正是心肝想心肝。

      兩首全篇各自重疊,又彼此重疊,強調的是“心肝”,就是情人。還有北京大學印的《歌謠紀念增刊》里有劉達九先生記的四川的兩首對山歌,是兩個牧童在賽唱:

      唱:你的山歌沒得我的山歌多,

      我的山歌幾籮篼。

      籮篼底下幾個洞,

      唱得沒得漏的多。

      答:你的山歌沒得我的山歌多,

      我的山歌牛毛多。

      唱了三年三個月,

      還沒有唱完牛耳朵。

      兩首的頭兩句各自重疊,又彼此重疊,各自夸各自的“山歌多”;比喻都是本地風光,活潑,新鮮,有趣味。重疊的方式多得很,這里只算是“牛耳朵”罷了。

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